Polish Up! - Tags and symbols explained

1. Hashtags

#abbreviation – shortened forms of words

#activity – nouns indicating activities (often made from verbs)

#adj-deverbal – adjectives made from verbs (action words)

#adj-quality – adjectives denoting certain qualities of things

#adj-relation – adjectives denoting relations to something

#all-adverbs – simply adverbs 🙂

#alphabet – symbols of the alphabet

#always-plural – nouns which do not have singular forms (Latin: plurale tantum)

#animal – names of animals

#body-part – parts of the body

#cardinal-number – numbers that represent amount

#change – verbs of change

#communication – nouns related to communication

#comparative – selected comparative forms

#compound – compound words (created from two or more words)

#conjunction – words binding elements of the sentence together

#emotion – nouns indicating emotions

#event – nouns indicating events

#exclamation – something said suddenly because of surprise or fear, etc.

#feminine – grammatically feminine nouns in Polish

#food – nouns referring to food items and ingredients

#for-a-while – verbs that indicate temporary or short-lived activities

#group – nouns referring to groups or collections

#hygiene – verbs related to hygiene

#location – nouns indicating various locations

#made-of – adjectives describing materials

#masculine-animate – nouns that are grammatically masculine and symbolise animate entities (but not human beings) or nouns which “behave” like living beings in the Polish system of grammar

#masculine-inanimate – nouns that are grammatically masculine and symbolise inanimate (not living) entities

#masculine-personal – nouns that are grammatically masculine and symbolise human beings

#multiple-imperfectives – verbs having more than one imperfective form (indicating action in progress)

#multiple-perfectives – verbs having more than one perfective form (indicating a completed action)

#natural-object – nouns symbolising natural objects

#natural-phenomenon – nouns symbolising natural phenomena

#natural-process – nouns symbolising natural processes

#neuter – nouns that are grammatically neuter

#no-perfective – verbs having no perfective forms (or having very rare or impractical perfective forms)

#number – numbers not classified elsewhere

#numerical-pronoun – number-like pronouns denoting a loosely specified (imprecise) quantity

#ordinal-number – numbers that indicate order or positions of things

#participle – a word that modifies the intended meaning by adding certainty, doubt, hesitation, negation, etc. or the function of the sentence (asking, ordering, wishing, etc.)

#person – nouns referring to people

#phrase – multi-word phrases or expressions

#plant – names of plants

#plural-sense – selected important plural forms of nouns

#possession – nouns related to possession — having, getting or giving things

#preposition – selected prepositions

#pronoun – pronouns, words used instead of nouns

#property – abstract nouns indicating various properties of objects

#purpose – nouns indicating purposes, goals and achievements

#quantity – nouns and other words that often go together with numbers

#question – question words

#relation – words indicating abstract relations, institutions or ideas

#shape – nouns describing geometrical shapes

#singular-only – words that are normally used in the singular number

#state – abstract words denoting states or conditions

#substance – words denoting substances

#superlative – selected superlative forms

#thinking – nouns related to thinking, imagination and mental processes

#third-person-only – verbs that are only or mostly used in the 3rd person (he/she/it/they)

#time – concepts related to time

#top-hierarchy – the most general abstract terms

#uncategorized – words not categorised in Polish Up!

#usually-plural – words that are usually found in the plural form (as far as the provided meaning is concerned)

#verb-competition – action words related to competing

#verb-emotion – action words expressing emotional states

#verb-food – action words related to eating and drinking

#verb-movement – action words related to movement

#verb-perception – action words related to human senses and perception

#verb-physical-contact – action words indicating or requiring physical contact

#verb-possession – action words expressing or related to possession

#verb-producing – action words related to productive or creative processes

#verb-society – action words related to human interaction and social life

#verb-speaking – action words denoting verbal acts (communicating something in speech)

#verb-state – action words indicating states or conditions

#verb-thinking – action words related to thinking and cognition

#verb-weather – action words connected with the weather conditions

2. Grammar


Polish plural nominative formsplural nominative form

Polish plural genitive formsplural genitive form

Polish masculine-personal gendermasculine-personal gender

Polish masculine-animate gendermasculine-animate gender

Polish masculine-inanimate gendermasculine-inanimate gender

Polish feminine noun genderfeminine gender

Polish neuter noun genderneuter gender

non-masculine gender in the Polish languagenon-masculine personal gender (plural)

masculine-personal gender in the Polish languagemasculine-personal gender (plural)

nouns which are always singularsingular only

nouns which are always pluralalways plural

nouns which are usually pluralusually plural

Polish noun presented in the plural versionplural form presented


imperfective (niedokonany) verbimperfective verb aspect

perfective (dokonany) verbperfective verb aspect

first-person imperfective (niedokonany) form in Polishfirst-person singular imperfective verb form

first-person perfective (dokonany) form in Polishfirst-person singular perfective verb form

second-person imperfective (niedokonany) form in Polishsecond-person singular imperfective verb form

second-person perfective (dokonany) form in Polishsecond-person singular perfective verb form

impersonal or defective Polish verbthird-person-only verbs (impersonal or defective)

impersonal or defective Polish verb formthird-person singular form


Polish feminine genderfeminine gender

Polish neuter genderneuter gender

non-masculine gender in the Polish languagenon-masculine personal gender (plural)

masculine-personal gender in the Polish languagemasculine-personal gender (plural)

Polish comparativescomparative

Polish superlativessuperlative


Polish comparativescomparative

Polish superlativessuperlative

Additional symbols:

expression in Polishcompound word, phrase, multi-word expression

cardinal numeralcardinal number (one, two, three)

ordinal numeralordinal number (first, second, third)

Polish pronounpronoun

Polish word for each and everyThe word każdy (each, every)

Polish conjunctionconjunction

Polish abbreviationabbreviation

Polish prepositionpreposition

Polish participleparticiple

questions wordquestion word

large numbernumber (often large or complex)

numerical pronounnumerical pronoun (a “wildcard” representing a range of numbers)

Polish alphabet letteralphabet symbol


uncategorised wordsuncategorised word

3. Groups of meanings (domains)


abstract Polish termsmost abstract terms (top-level “umbrella” terms)

activities in the Polish languagephysical and mental activities

man-made objectsartefacts (man-made objects)


body parts in Polishbody parts

cognitive processesthinking and productivity

words related to communicationcommunication and language

words related to eventsevents

emotive words in Polishemotions

words related to food and eatingfood and eating

Polish group nounsgroup (collective) nouns

words indicating locationslocations

words indicating goalsgoals, purposes and objectives

Polish words referring to natural objectsnatural objects

Polish words referring to peoplepeople

natural phenomena in Polishnatural phenomena

plant names in Polishplants

nouns of possession in Polishpossession

vocabulary related to natural processes and healthhealth and natural processes

nouns of quantityquantity

animal names in Polishanimals

names of shapes in Polishshapes

states and processesstates and (temporary) conditions

Polish names of substancessubstances

time in Polishtime

relations between people and ideasrelations between people, institutions and ideas


Polish vocabulary related to hygienehygiene

words describing changeschange and transformation

vocabulary related to thinkingthinking, cognition and reasoning

Polish verbs related to speakingspeaking and communication

competitions and gamesgames and competitions

food names in Polishfood and eating

physical contactverbs implying physical contact

creative and productive processescreative/productive processes

expressing feelings in Polishfeelings and emotions


perceptionperceptions and senses


social and cultural activities in Polishsocial and cultural activities

state verbsstates

state verbsweather

temporary activitiestemporary (short-lived) activities


Polish adjectives of qualityquality

Polish adjectives of relationrelation

Polish deverbal adjectivesdeverbal adjectives

Polish adjectives based on names of materialsadjectives based on names of materials/substances


Polish adverbsadverbs in general